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Paragon Pearl 18 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Glass Annealing, Fusing, And Slumping. Paragon Pearl 22 Kiln With A Sentry Controller For Glass Annealing, Fusing, And Slumping. Paragon Pearl 44 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Glass Annealing, Fusing, And Slumping.
Paragon Pearl 18 Paragon Pearl 22 Paragon Pearl 44 Kilns:Ovens:Furnaces
Paragon Pearl-4426 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Pearl-22 Glass Annealing Kiln.
Paragon Pearl-44 Glass Fusing Kiln.
Paragon Pearl-56 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Pearl-18 Glass Annealing Kiln.
Paragon Pearl-22 Glass Annealing Kiln.

The Paragon Pearl Glass Kilns For Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Moulding, Sagging, And Slumping.

Paragon Pearl kilns are generally used for annealing, casting, fusing, moulding, sagging, and slumping glass, although they have other applications. They're 925°C kilns with digital programmers, in Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. Learn about Paragon Pearl kilns on this page.

There are five: the square, top-opening, firebrick, Pearl 18 and Pearl 22, and the rectangular, top-opening, ceramic-fibre and firebrick Pearl 4426 in ascending order of firing chamber width. Pearl implies it opens like an oyster, and the numbers are the approximate internal widths in inches.

The Sentry 12-key programmer can be upraded to a Sentinel Touch Screen. Both have advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.


Prices here are transparent: they're for UK-EU voltage, CE marked, CL CSA approved, and TUV tested kilns, and include comprehensive instructions, UK VAT, and free continuing support from a top-tier international distributor. So you can start work straight away.

For prices, trading terms, and secure on-line shopping, use the shop link below the menu bar near the top-right of any page. The order form is after the price list, near the bottom.

Kilns that weigh over 30kg can't be delivered by a regular parcel-service van: they need a tail-lift lorry with a hydraulic pallet trolley. GB-mainland delivery charges are on the shop page. For other locations, call or mail.

Paragon Pearl-18 Glass Annealing Kiln. Paragon Pearl-18 Glass Annealing Kiln.
Paragon Pearl 18 Glass Annealing Kiln Paragon Pearl 18 Glass Annealing Kiln
Paragon Pearl-22 Glass Annealing Kiln. Paragon Pearl-44 Glass Annealing Kiln.
Paragon Pearl 22 Glass Annealing Kiln Paragon Pearl 44 Glass Annealing Kiln
Paragon Pearl-44 Glass Annealing Kiln. Paragon Pearl-4426 Glass Annealing Kiln.
Paragon Pearl 44 Glass Annealing Kiln Paragon Pearl 4426 Glass Annealing Kiln
Paragon Pearl-4626 Glass Annealing Kiln. Paragon Pearl-56 Glass Annealing Kiln.
Paragon Pearl 4426 Glass Annealing Kiln Paragon Pearl 56 Glass Annealing Kiln
Paragon Pearl-56 Glass Annealing Kiln. Orton-Paragon Sentry Digital Controller.
Paragon Pearl 56 Glass Annealing Kiln Paragon Sentry 12-Key Digital Programmer
Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Smart-Touch Digital Controller. Lauscha By Carrie Fertig.
Paragon Sentinel Digital Programmer Lauscha By Carrie Fertig

If you want to look at specific Pearl kilns and don't need to read any general introductions, compare or review the main features, or consider other kilns, use the button below to jump down the page. I'll start with the smallest.

Click To Jump.
THE PARAGON PEARL KILNS: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Paragon Pearl 18 Glass Kiln With A Sentry 12-Key Controller. Paragon Pearl 22 Glass Kiln With A Sentry 12-Key Controller. Paragon Pearl 44 Glass Kiln With A Sentry 12-Key Controller. Paragon Pearl 56 Glass Kiln With A Sentry 12-Key Controller.
Paragon Pearl 18 Paragon Pearl 22 Paragon Pearl 44 Paragon Pearl 64

The Paragon Pearl Professional Glass Kilns For Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

Paragon Pearl kilns are generally used for annealing, casting, fusing, moulding, sagging, and slumping glass, although they have other applications. They're 925°C firebrick kilns with digital programmers, in Paragon black or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.

There are five: the square, top-opening, firebrick, Pearl 18 and Pearl 22, and the rectangular, top-opening, ceramic-fibre and firebrick Pearl 4426 in ascending order of firing chamber width. Pearl implies it opens like an oyster, and the numbers are the approximate internal widths in inches.

The Sentry 12-key programmer can be upraded to a Sentinel Touch Screen. Both have advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

They're ideal for your arts centre, college, commercial glassworks, course venue, glass studio, school, or technical facility. Especially as they have a two-year warranty.


Use them for lampwork, annealing beads and glass, firing bronze and copper clays, china paints, applying decals, dental work, fusing dichroic glasses, enamelling, fire polishing, glass art, glass casting, fusing, sagging, and slumping, glass clays, glass panels, heat treating, knife making, laboratory testing, lost-wax casting, making jewellery, pâte de verre, sintering silver clays, staining glass, hardening, and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools, and many other materials and processes.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still work with most popular small-scale materials such as Accent Gold, Art Clay metal clays, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.
And there's an increasingly diverse range of other metal clays, such as Cinter, Clay Mania, Creative, Goldie, Hadar Jacobson, Metal Adventures, Meteor, Noble, and PMC Sterling.

You can make architectural features, beads, bowls, bracelets, brooches, candle holders, chandelier components, decorations, figurines, fingerprint keepsakes, glass-art, glass panels, jewellery, knives, lampshades, miniatures, gun and model parts, necklaces, ornaments, pendants, plates, souvenirs, stained-glass designs, tableware, tiaras, tiles, tools, and vases, as unique hand-crafted pieces or repeatable stock for sale.


If you're not sure that a Pearl kiln is the right choice:

Glass kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 925°C. For these, look at the Fusion:CS Series, GL Series, or F Series. These are not hot enough for ceramics.

Ceramics kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1230°C to 1290°C. For these, look at the small Caldera Series, the medium Xpress Series, and the large Janus Series and PMT Series. These can also be used for glass work.

The 1095°C HT Series and 1290°C PMT Series look similar: except the HT kilns have bottom-hinged doors and the PMT kilns have side-hinged doors. The HT kilns can be upgraded to 1290°C.

The KM Series are 1290°C knife-making kilns, made for depth rather than width. You can choose a standard drop-down door or a side-hinged door.


Some of the popular kilns are in the table below. To learn more about all the kilns, use the appropriate links above and below the menu bar near the top of the page.


KILN TYPE MAX °C WATTS KG INTERIOR INTERIOR SIZE MM
Pearl 18 top opening 925 4000 115 firebrick 457 x 457 x 216
Pearl 22 top opening 925 7200 146 firebrick 559 x 559 x 330
Pearl 4426 top opening 925 11500 417 firebrick 1118 x 660 x 330
Caldera A top opening 1290 1800 20 firebrick 203 x 203 x 171
F 130 Elite front punty door 925 2400 103 firebrick 279 x 279 x 330
Fusion CS 16D lid and body top opening 925 2400 85 firebrick 406 x 406 x 165
GL 22ADTSD front opening 1095 11000 152 firebrick 533 x 533 x 337
HT 14D front opening 1095 3120 55 firebrick 330 x 343 x 222
Janus 1613 top opening 1290 4800 90 firebrick 419 x 337
KM 24D front opening 1290 2600 63 firebrick 140 x 610 x 108
PMT 21 front opening 1290 9600 290 firebrick 533 x 533 x 330
Xpress E12A front opening 1290 2700 38 firebrick 216 x 305 x 222
THE PARAGON PEARL 18 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Pearl 18 Glass Annealing Kiln Paragon Pearl 18 Glass Fusing And Slumping Kiln Paragon Sentry Digital Programmer Paragon Sentinel Touch Screen Digital Controller
Paragon Pearl 18 Paragon Pearl 18 Sentry Sentinel

The Paragon Pearl 18 Glass Kiln For Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Pearl 18 is a 925°C, square, top-opening, wired-in, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold, Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 18 means that it's about 18 inches square inside.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 4000W, so it needs an 18A wired-in power supply. To comply with safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements whenever the kiln is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The outer steel case measures 686mm x 864mm x 533mm high, including the programmer housing, four lifting handles, and other hardware. The lid has a lifting handle and two easy-lift pneumatic cylinders. The shipping weight is about 115Kg.

The firebrick firing chamber measures measures 457mm x 457mm x 216mm high, and heats from the top, with the fast firing elements in pinless dropped-recess grooves in the 64mm thick firebricks. The kiln has two electro-mechanical relays and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


Serious glass artists are always concerned about firebrick dust from the lid falling onto their work, so you could upgrade the standard firebrick lid to a factory-fitted ceramic-fibre lid with the elements threaded through pinless dropped-recess grooves.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally blue
List a ceramic fibre top with the elements in grooves: factory fitted
List a programmer upgrade: a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List a programmer upgrade: a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel Touch Screen: more useful features: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List a three-zone K-type nickel-chromium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List a three-zone long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

This is a robust professional kiln with a comprehensive digital programmer, so ideal for a commercial glass studio or an engineering workshop. For comparison, the larger Pearl 22 is about 1.58 times taller inside and has about 2.28 times the internal volume.

THE PARAGON PEARL 18 KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon Pearl 18 Kiln Furniture.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable square 432mm x 432mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator.

There are two extra kits, not included in the price: one square 432mm x 432mm x 15mm shelf and four posts, or one rectangular 432mm x 216mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, 100mm, or 150mm posts.


Shelf kits aren't included because not everyone wants the standard Paragon size. Large full-size shelves are quite heavy if you have to move them, so you could use two half shelves. Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted glass will ruin the firebricks.

THE PARAGON PEARL 22 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Pearl 22 Glass Kiln Paragon Pearl 22 Glass Kiln Paragon Sentry Digital Programmer Paragon Sentinel Touch Screen Programmer
Paragon Pearl 22 Paragon Pearl 22 Sentry Sentinel

The Paragon Pearl 22 Glass Kiln For Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Pearl 22 is a 925°C, square, top-opening, wired-in, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold, Sentry 12-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon black, or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon's kiln names often use a number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 22 means that it's about 22 inches square inside.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 7200W, so it needs a 30A wired-in power supply. To comply with safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements whenever the kiln is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The outer steel case measures 813mm x 940mm x 660mm high, including the programmer housing, four lifting handles, and other hardware. The lid has a lifting handle and two easy-lift pneumatic cylinders. The shipping weight is about 146Kg.

The firebrick firing chamber measures measures 559mm x 559mm x 330mm high, and heats from the top, with the fast firing elements in pinless dropped-recess grooves in the 64mm thick firebricks. The kiln has a long-life mercury relay and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


Serious glass artists are always concerned about firebrick dust from the lid falling onto their work, so you could upgrade the standard firebrick lid to a factory-fitted ceramic-fibre lid with the elements threaded through pinless dropped-recess grooves.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List a ceramic fibre top with the elements in grooves: factory fitted
List a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel Touch Screen: more useful features
List a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List a three-zone K-type nickel-chromium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List a three-zone long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

This is a robust professional kiln with a comprehensive digital programmer, so ideal for a commercial glass studio or an engineering workshop.

THE PARAGON PEARL 22 KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon Pearl 22 Kiln Furniture.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable square 508mm x 508mm x 25mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator.

There are two extra kits, not included in the price: one square 508mm x 508mm x 25mm shelf and four posts, or one half-square 508mm x 254mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.


Shelf kits aren't included because not everyone wants the standard Paragon size. Large shelves are quite heavy if you have to move them, so you could use a lighter ceramic fibre slab or an arrangement of smaller shelves. Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted glass will ruin the firebricks.

THE PARAGON PEARL 4426 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Pearl 4426 Glass Kiln Paragon Pearl 4426 Glass Kiln Paragon Sentry Digital Programmer Paragon Sentinel Touch Screen Programmer
Paragon Pearl 44 Paragon Pearl 44 Sentry Sentinel

The Paragon Pearl 4426 Glass Kiln For Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Pearl 4426 is a 925°C, rectangular, top-opening, ceramic fibre and firebrick, floor standing kiln, with a ramp-hold, Sentry 12-key digital programmer.


Paragon's kiln names often use a number to represent one or more of the internal dimensions in inches. For this kiln, 44 means it's about 44 inches wide inside.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 11500W, so it needs a 50A wired-in power supply. To comply with safety regulations, it's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements whenever the kiln is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The outer steel case measures 1651mm x 965mm x 1168mm high, including the programmer housing, six legs, and other hardware. The lid has two vents and two easy-lift pneumatic cylinders. The shipping weight is about 482Kg.

The ceramic-fibre and firebrick firing chamber measures 1118mm x 660mm x 330mm high, and heats from the top and all four top-sides, with the fast-firing elements in quartz tubes in the 64mm thick side firebricks and the 75mm thick top ceramic fibreboard. For long life, the firebricks have expansion joints. The kiln has two long-life mercury relays and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The Sentry 12-key programmer has a power-ratio feature: you can adjust the heat balance between the top and sides in 10% steps and control the heat distribution over larger pieces.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


Serious glass artists are always concerned that firebrick dust from the lid might fall onto their work, so this kiln has a ceramic-fibre lid with the elements threaded through pinless dropped-recess grooves.


List a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel Touch Screen: more useful features: factory fitted
List a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion:

This is a robust professional kiln with a comprehensive digital programmer, so ideal for a commercial glass studio or an engineering workshop. If size is vital, there's also a 44 version that's 559mm deep.

THE PARAGON PEARL 4426 KILN FURNITURE

The Paragon Pearl 44 Kiln Furniture: Three Shelves Or One CoreLite Shelf.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: two durable square 508mm x 508mm x 25mm cordierite shelves, eight 12mm shelf posts, and 900gm of glass separator.

There are two extra kits, not included in the price: one square 508mm x 508mm x 25mm shelf and four posts, or one half-square 508mm x 254mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, 100mm, or 150mm posts.

However, if you want to work on one continuous surface, there's an alternative kit, not included in the price: one rectangular CoreLite extruded shelf and four 480mm x 38mm x 50mm shelf-support rails.


Shelf kits aren't included because not everyone wants the standard Paragon size. Large shelves are quite heavy if you have to move them, so you could use a lighter ceramic fibre slab or an arrangement of smaller shelves. Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted glass will ruin the firebricks.

RECOMMENDED READING
General Help and FAQs For Kilns. Paragon Kiln Shelf Kit. Paragon Relay. Paragon Transformer.

Kilns, Digital Programmers, Kiln Furniture, Options, Upgrades, Firing, Kiln Logs, Accessories, Materials, Parts, Processes, Repairs, And Tools.

The remaining sections are recommended reading, unless you're already using kilns successfully.


Cherry Heaven has been a Paragon distributor since 2002, and commended every year for outstanding performance. Paragon kilns are good value: buy Paragons and you could save enough to treat yourself to a luxury five-star weekend break.

Anyone can buy a kiln to resell and call themselves a specialist, but a top-tier distributor understands all the kilns, options, and upgrades, will stock spares, offers free competent technical support, can help you repair your kiln, provides on-line repair videos, has a repair workshop, and can access Paragon's extensive knowledge-base.

If you need help, you can mail an experienced technician or call . Alternatively, to learn more about how your kiln works, use the help link below the menu bar near the top of the page.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO GLASS AND GEMS

Obsidian. Fish. Curved Glass by Infabbrica. Lauscha By Carrie Fertig.

What Is Glass?

The main component of glass is silicon dioxide, often called silica: found naturally and plentifully as sand. When it melts, at around 1700°C, it's like syrup on a cold day. When it cools, it forms a rigid brittle glass called quartz glass.

To lower the melting point, and reduce the cost of melting, chemicals are added: typically sodium carbonate and calcium oxide. Other chemicals, and different heating and cooling processes, produce a range of colours and mechanical properties.

Chemically, glass is defined as an amorphous solid but, as it's heated, it becomes softer allowing it to be blown, cast, coated, decorated, engraved, heat-treated, moulded, poured, pressed, sagged, and slumped.

A form of glass occurs naturally within the mouth of a volcano when the intense heat of an eruption melts sand to form Obsidian, a hard black-to-brown glassy type of stone, shown in the photo. Although it was used decoratively, when it fractures it has very sharp edges, many times sharper than a steel knife-edge, so was also used for tools and weapons: and the pitiful rituals of circumcision and female genital mutilation.

ANNEALING
Annealed Beads Made Into A Necklace.

What Is Annealing?

Very briefly, annealing generally involves heating glass or metal to it's annealing point, maintaining a specific temperature for a set time, and then cooling it to room temperature.

During annealing, fabrication stresses are relieved as the molecules cool and arrange themselves into a regular stable matrix. Successful annealing is the key to creating work that will remain attractive and durable. It can be quite a long process, and involve multiple phases, so a kiln with an automatic comprehensive programmer is essential.

FREE BEAD ANNEALING GUIDE

A Bead Annealing Guide.

You can download, and print, a Bead Annealing Guide. Paragon created it in 2013 so it's only a guide, not a contemporary definitive document. Click here. It's a pdf file, but your device should already have a pdf viewer.

BOILED GLASS
Boiled Glass.

Glass scraps, with optional bubble powder, are put in a tray or a mould and heated. As the temperature increases the glasses begin to bubble. The bubbles mix the colours and give a natural organic appearance. The glasses need to be compatible as different colours and expansion coefficient might not work, so the boiled glass technique needs experiment and practice.

You increase the temperature at about 300°C per hour to 925°C with no bubble squeeze and soak for 10–15 minutes. Then allow the kiln to drop the temperature as fast as possible to about 815°C and soak there for around 30 minutes to allow the little bubbles to rise to the surface and burst. Then reduce to the annealing temperature and soak for the thickness you calculated in preparation for the firing.

CUBIC ZIRCONIA
Cubic Zirconia.

What Are Cubic Zirconia.

Cubic Zirconia is the most popular substitute for a diamond because they look almost dentical. Cubic Zirconia or CZ, is made from zirconium dioxide which comes closer than any other gem to matching the characteristics of a diamond. It's not quite as hard as diamond and is slightly less sparkly but displays more prismatic fire with more colour sparkles within the gem, especially if metal oxides are added during the production process.

Caring for CZ is important because they are more brittle than diamonds and susceptible to wear and tear such as chipping and scratches over time.

DECALS
Rose By Arwen Moore Design.

What Are Decals?

A decal or transfer is an image or pattern printed on a ceramic, cloth, paper, or plastic substrate that can be moved on to another surface, usually with the aid of water and heat.

A wet decal can be slid into position, allowed to dry, and then heated in a kiln. Most ceramic decals come with a cone number for easy firing, typically cone 022. The programmer on the Paragon Fusion 7XL has pre-set cone numbers as well as the normal ramp-hold options used for general glass work.

Decals are a quick and fun way to decorate bottles, glasses, and vases, as most low-fire ceramic decals and low-fire glass decals will work very well, even on float glass.

DIAMONDS
Diamond.

What Are Diamonds?

Diamonds are not a form of glass: they're naturally occurring gems composed of carbon atoms arranged in a very regular pattern.

Between 1 billion to 3.3 billion years ago, simple carbon containing trace minerals was transformed into diamonds by heat and pressure at depths of over 100 miles below the earth’s surface. We can’t mine down far enough to reach the earth’s mantle but fortunately volcanic eruptions brought the diamonds closer to the surface. They're extremely hard and until recently were regarded as the world's hardest natural material.

Although diamonds are extremely expensive, their price is governed by carat, cut, colour, and clarity. It’s very rare to find a diamond that doesn’t contain flaws: however the impurities, and internal refraction and dispersion of light, give diamonds their brilliance.


Synthetic diamonds are manufactured and are identical in hardness, dispersion, gravity, refraction and chemical composition to the highest quality mined diamonds available. Whereas a one-carat top quality diamond would cost thousands of pounds to buy, the same quality man-made diamond could be made for less than £5.

This will obviously have a huge impact on the diamond industry over the next few years as when comparing a cultured and mined diamond side by side they are virtually undistinguishable. A bit like pearls, they can be grown from a single crystal using chemical vapor deposition.

DICHROIC GLASS
Dichroic Glass.

What Are Dichroic Glasses.

Dichroic glass has two different colours: a transmitted colour and a reflective colour, both of which change depending on the angle of view. For example blue-red will be blue in transmission and red in reflection.

During manufacture, quartz and metal oxides are vapourised onto the surface of the glass using a vacuum deposition process, forming a multi-layer crystal structure.

ENAMELLING
Enamelled Jewellery.

What Is Enamelling?

Enamelling involves applying a glass paste to metal and then heating it to fuse it to the surface. The finish of the enamel can be translucent or opaque depending on the temperature used to melt the glass. Higher temperatures result in a more transparent and durable enamel whilst lower temperatures give a more opaque and fragile surface. Dyes and pigments can be included to produce any colour.

The Paragon SC2 is ideal for enamelling, although other kilns are fine. So click the sc2-sc3:jewellery link below the menu bar near the top of the page. The SC-2W and SC-3W doors include a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in the centre of the door, allowing you to take a quick peep at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress

FIRE POLISHING
Fire Polished Glass.

What Is Fire Polishing?

To fire polish glass, return the items to the kiln and melt them just enough to give a smooth polished appearance. It needs a temperature of around 700°C, and is often used to round the edges of glass after fusing.

Fire polishing already-slumped items is more difficult because the polishing temperature is close to the slumping temperature and it can distort the appearance of the piece. So it generally works best for flat items, rather than slumped ones. It has the slight limitation that the part of the item that touches the kiln shelf won't polish.

FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Fused Glass.

What Is Glass Fusing?

If two or more pieces of glass in contact are heated, they begin to soften and fuse together. With careful heating and cooling, the separate pieces of glass become one.

If glass is put on a mould and heated, it begins to soften and collapse, or sag, onto the mould: a common technique for making bowls and plates.

Sagging and slumping are often thought of as being the same. Correctly: during sagging, heated glass, supported at its edges, sags down in the middle to conform to a mould; during slumping, heated glass, supported at its middle, slumps down at its edges to conform to a mould.

LAMPWORK AND BEADS
Beads.

What Is Lampwork?

Lamp-working is the traditional name for glasswork that uses a flame to melt glass rods and tubes. As the glass softens, it's shaped by turning and using tools.

Early lampworkers used an oil-lamp, and blew air into the flame through a pipe. Later, propane, natural gas, or butane torches replaced the lamp, although kilns are now increasingly popular, particularly for annealing.

Beads are usually made on steel rods, or mandrels. When the beads are finished, the rods are removed leaving holes for threading the beads. Cold working techniques can be used, such as etching, faceting, polishing, and sandblasting.

LOST-WAX BURNOUT
Paragon W13 Lost Wax Casting Kiln With A Sentry Programmer.

What Is Lost Wax Burnout And Casting.

Lost-wax burnout starts with making a wax shape and then making a mould of the shape. When the mould is heated in a kiln, the wax melts out through channels, usually over a burnout grate and into a tray. The shape is then cast in glass or metal from the mould.

It's important to prevent wax or carbon sticking to the elements, so burnout kilns have a top vent to release the fumes. Carbon build-up inside a kiln conducts electricity and can cause the elements to short circuit.

I've written some general instructions here but, as always, making anything successfully needs critical research and frequent tests, especially as things that work for your friends and teachers might not work in the same way for you. It's also very important to learn how to creatively use unexpected effects.

The most popular kilns for lost wax processes are the Paragon W series: the W13, W14, and W18. Learn about these by using the w:lost-wax-burnout link below the menu bar near the top of the page. Wax burnout trays, glare-resistant glasses, and heat-resistant gloves are in the on-line shop.

HOW TO DO LOST WAX BURNOUT

How To Do Lost Wax Burnout And Casting.

1 : Place a metal tray inside the kiln on a few 12mm posts. Place the mould on a grate on top of the tray. The mould’s sprue holes should face down. The tray will catch melting wax as it drips from the sprue holes.

2 : Keep the kiln’s vent hole open during wax elimination. If the kiln has no vent hole, leave the door open 12mm. This allows fumes to escape from the kiln. Heat the kiln to 148°C and hold it at that temperature for at least one hour. Do NOT heat the wax above 148°C.

3 : During this hour, the wax will melt from the mould and drip into the tray. If the kiln gets hotter than 148°C, the wax may smoke and deposit carbon inside your kiln, causing expensive damage.

4 : After one hour at 148°C, open the kiln. Remove the mould and wax tray. Pour the wax from the tray and leave the tray out of the kiln until your next wax elimination. Don't leave the tray in the kiln.

5 : Harden the mould to the temperature recommended by your mould material manufacturer.

6 : Finally, adjust the temperature to the casting temperature of the glass or metal. Hold at that temperature until you are ready to begin casting. Remove the mould with tongs. Wear protective gloves and safety glasses.


Over time, a small amount of carbon can form on the firing chamber walls as any wax residue left in the mould burns off. So I recommend that you periodically open the vent or leave the door open 12mm, and fire the kiln empty to 815°C at a rate of 166°C with a one hour hold.

MOISSANITE
Moissanite.

What Is Moissanite.

Moissanite is another diamond substitute which is a rare mineral found naturally in small quantities, although Moissanite for jewellery is artificially made. It’s made from Silicon Carbide which means it’s able to withstand high temperatures and is very hard.

Moissanite is noticeably much sparklier and displays more prismatic fire than a diamond which is noticeable even to an untrained observer. Moissanite does have inclusions like a diamond and it may also have a greenish tinge to its colour.

PÂTE DE VERRE
Pâte De Verre.

What Is Pâte De Verre?

Pâte de verre involves making a glass paste, applying it to a mould, firing it, and removing the piece from the mould. The glass paste is usually made from glass powder, a binder such as gum arabic, distilled water, and colouring agents or enamels. It allows precise placing of colours in the mould, whereas other techniques often result in the glass straying from its intended position.

I think, currently, Daum is the only large commercial crystal manufacturer using the pâte de verre process for art glass and crystal sculptures.

SLUMPING BOTTLES
Slumped Bottle.

What Is Glass Slumping?

This a simple technique but it requires good ideas. A bottle, such as those used for wine, beer, cola, or champagne, is softened in a kiln so that it begins to flatten out or conforms to a mould. There are too many moulds to stock here but there are lots available on line. Or make your own from clay.

The bottles need to be clean and dry, with all paper labels and tops removed. Put them in your kiln on a shelf, either with shelf paper or kiln wash to prevent the glass sticking to the shelf.

Paragon makes a kiln designed for this: the Trio. So click the trio link below the menu bar near the top of the page. It's wide enough for most bottles but can still use a regular socket.

STAINED GLASS
Stained Glass.

What Is Stained Glass?

Stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, traditionally held together by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design.

The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln.

It requires artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the Late Middle Ages.

SWAROVSKI CRYSTAL
Swarovski Crystal.

What Is Swarovski Crystal?

Swarovski Crystal isn’t a gemstone or even a crystal: it’s a form of glass made at high temperatures by melting silicon oxide powders with lead to form what is known as lead crystal. The exact process is patented by Swarovski but it has approximately 32% lead content to increase the crystals refraction index to resemble that of a diamond. To produce a diamond like effect the crystal glass is precision cut and then polished again by a Swarovski patented process that gives the crystal a high quality finish.

The crystals are often further enhanced by coating the glass with an Aurora Borealis or AB coating that gives the surface a rainbow like appearance to simulate dispersion from a diamond. Swarovski crystal is not as hard as diamond so its susceptible to scratches and chipping from wear and tear, but it’s harder than standard glass.

TACK FUSING
Tack Fused Glass.

What Is Tack Fusing?

Tack fusing is the joining together of glass, with as little change to the shape of the pieces as possible. Tack fusing may be used either decoratively, or to assemble a large piece of glass from laminations.

Where tack fusing is used to apply small decorative details to a larger piece, you might want to partially melt the small pieces so that they change shape, usually becoming more spherical under the influence of surface tension, but without changing the shape of the carrier piece. This can be done by using an increased temperature, but only briefly. The carrier piece has a larger thermal mass, so heats up more slowly than the small decorations.

VITRIGRAPH WORK
Glass Stringers. Paragon Caldera Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Vitrigraph. Ceramic-Fibre Boards. Crucible.

What Is Vitrigraph?

The vitrigraph process usually uses a Paragon Caldera kiln to make glass stringers. The clip-on bottom of the kiln is removed and set aside. The kiln body is put on a thick ceramic rectangle with a central hole. The rectangle is put on two wall brackets or any stable structure away from the floor.

A crucible of glass is put in the kiln and, as it heats, the moulten glass falls through a hole in the crucible to form long stringers. Skilled artists can control the thickness of the stringers and can even draw with the glass as it comes out.


The Caldera needs a 500mm x 400mm x 50mm rectangle, which we cut for you from a much larger sheet. Normal kiln shelves are made from cordierite: a very dense hard ceramic. A suitable-size rectangle would be fairly heavy and hard to cut and drill, so we we use ceramic-fibre board. Ceramic-fibre rectangles are in the on-line shop.

Ceramic-fibre board is made from vacuum-formed fibre. It doesn't retain heat, has a low thermal conductivity, and is stable at temperatures up to 1430°C. If you need to trim it, use a knife, handsaw, or electric jigsaw, but cut it neatly because, as it's fibrous, you can't use a file or sandpaper successfully.


When you work with any fibrous material, don't get the fibres on your hands or breathe them in: ideally, you should put on gloves, wear a HEPA dust mask, use clear protective glasses, and wash your hands afterwards.

WARM GLASS
Warm Glass Flower Bowl.

What Is Warm Glass?

The term warm glass refers to fusing, slumping, and other glass processes which take place at temperatures between about 600°C to 925°C. Although that doesn't sound warm, it is when you compare it to glassblower's working temperatures, which often exceed 1100°C. Warm glass is sometimes called kiln-formed glass.

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KILNS, OVENS, FURNACES, PARTS, AND SUPPORT
Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer PCB. Paragon Type-K Thermocouple. Paragon Relay. Paragon Shelf Kit.
Programmer PCB Type-K Thermocouple Electro-Mechanical Relay Pro Shelf Kit

Paragon Kilns, Furnaces, and Ovens For Annealing, Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Glass, Jewellery, Knife Making, Lost Wax, Silver Clays, Heat Treating, Lampwork, Porcelain, And Vitrigraph.

is a Cherry Heaven internet resource. Cherry Heaven is a top-tier international distributor for Texas-made Paragon kilns, furnaces, and ovens, and has been one of their top-selling partners from 2006 to : a pleasing outcome since the UK is only one third the area of Texas and one fortieth the area of the US.

As this is an on-line resource, there isn't a paper catalogue or a price list. However, you can mail or call a technician about kilns, power supplies, public area safety, a special project, business ideas, diagnostics, repairs, or reselling opportunities.


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UK To EU Plug Adapter.
Ceramic Block.
Ceramic Cloth.
EU Plug.
UK-EU Adapter.
Dry Powder Extinguisher.
Glare Resistant Glasses.
HEPA Mask.
heat-resistant Gloves.
Kitiki Cutters.
Kitiki Flush Cutters.
Kitiki Flat-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Pointed-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Bent-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Round-Nose Pliers.
Protective Glasses.
Potter & Brumfield Relay.
Dorset, SW England.
UK 13A Plug.
Large Rubber Drum 950gm Open
The AX-4 Digital Controller.
MiniKiln Closed.
Bartlett-Paragon Touch Screen Digital Controller.
Paragon BlueBird Bead Annealing Kiln.
Lauscha by Carrie Fertig.
Activated Charcoal Granules.
Paragon Caldera Ceramics And Glass Kiln.
Paragon Caldera Bead, Enamels, And Glass Kiln.
Paragon Crucible.
Paragon Fusion CS14D Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion CS14SB Glass And Bead Kiln.
Paragon Caldera XL Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon F500 Lampwork Kiln.
Paragon FireFly Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 7 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 8 Glass Kiln.
Paragon GL18ADTSD Glass Kiln.
Paragon HT-14D Heat Treating Furnace.
Paragon Janus 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon KM18D Knife-Making Oven.
Paragon KM36 XL PRP Knife-Making Furnace.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Unassembled.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Suction Cup.
Paragon Pearl 22 Glass Kiln.
Paragon PMT21 Heat Treating Kiln.
Paragon Door Peephole And Vent.
Stainless Steel Pans.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2B Bead-Door Kiln.
Paragon SC2W Enamelling Kiln.
Paragon SC4 Glass Kiln.
Paragon SC2BW Jewellery And Bead Kiln.
Paragon SC2D Pro-3 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Shelf Kit.
Paragon SC-2 Jade Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.
Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch-Screen Controller.
Paragon SC-2 Pink Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Pro Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Turqoise Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Purple Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Navy Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Berry Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon ST-8 Kiln Table.
Paragon Kiln Table With Casters.
Paragon TNF 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon GL24 Kiln Table.
Paragon Xpress 1613 Top Row Of Bricks.
Paragon W Lost-Wax Casting Kiln.
Paragon Lost-Wax Burnout Tray With Grille.
Paragon Lost-Wax Burnout Tray With Grid.
USB Plug.
Paragon Xpress E-12 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-12B Bead Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-14 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Xpress Q-11 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Vitrigraph Kiln.
Prometheus Pro-7.